polyvinyl chloride monomer

Main Industries and Occupations at Risk Production of polyvinyl chloride resins (workers who clean and maintain the reactors are especially at risk); Production of vinyl chloride- vinyl acetate copolymers; Storage of Vinyl Chloride Monomer; Sampling and analysis of Vinyl Chloride Monomer. When EDC in gas phase is heated to 500 °C at 15–30 atm (1.5 to 3 MPa) pressure, it decomposes to produce vinyl chloride and anhydrous HCl. Nat Catal (2020). Decreased male libido, spontaneous abortion, and birth defects are known major reproductive defects associated with vinyl chloride. In contrast to ethylene, which easily undergoes chlorine addition, ethane must first be functionalized by substitution reactions, which gives rise to a variety of consecutive and side-chain reactions. From its flake or pellet form PVC is sold to companies that heat and mold the PVC into end products such as PVC pipe and bottles. It is mainly used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Chloroethene, Chloroethylene, Ethylene monochloride, Monochloroethene, Monochloroethylene, VC, VCM, Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) Colorless gas or liquid (below 7°F) with a pleasant odor at high concentrations. OxyChem's affiliate OxyVinyls is the third-largest Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) supplier in the United States. VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. We have built facilities to produce special vinyl chloride resin in the U.S. and Asia as part of this global-scale business. Viola's findings in 1970 were a "red flag" to B.F. Goodrich and the industry. Klaus Weissermel, Hans-Jürgen Arpe in "Industrial organic chemistry", "Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Vinyl Chloride"1988. This is a plastic that has the following chemical formula: CH2=CHCl (see picture on the right). Lyon. August 22, 1930, Tribukh, S L et al. PVC, in full polyvinyl chloride, a synthetic resin made from the polymerization of vinyl chloride. China still uses this method to produce vinyl chloride due to the large reserves of coal from which acetylene is produced. "Working Conditions and Measures for Their Improvement in Production and Use of Vinylchloride Plastics" (1949). Exposures to vinyl chloride monomer during the early years of production resulted in an important sentinel health event: the recognition of an excess of a rare liver cancer, hepatic angiosarcoma, at facilities throughout the world. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is used in practically all branches of industry including medical technology, e.g., in the ... after emulsification of the monomer in the aqueous phase one obtains an emulsion PVC. Science (2017). They also recommended long-term animal toxicology studies. Supplement 7, 1987. Due to the hazardous nature of vinyl chloride to human health there are no end products that use vinyl chloride in its monomer form. Vinyl chloride is a mutagen having clastogenic effects which affect lymphocyte chromosomal structure. Vinyl chloride is a chemical intermediate, not a final product and hence there are no end products that use vinyl chloride in its monomer form. The most commonly used plasticizer is the compound di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), also known as dioctyl phthalate (DOP). The presently accepted upper limit of safety as a health hazard is 500 ppm. Rigid PVC is typically made into durable structural products such as window casings and home siding, which are not frequently recycled. Vinyl chloride is a common contaminant found near landfills. The recycling code number of PVC is #3. Corrections? Since the mechanical integrity of a plastic depends on its high average molecular weight, wear and tear inevitably weakens the material. With special catalysts and at optimized conditions, however, ethane conversions of greater than 96% have been reported from oxychlorination reactions. Nanostructuring unlocks high performance of platinum single-atom catalysts for stable vinyl chloride production. Several million tons of PVC are sold on the global market each year. Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) (1993). Numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. When vinyl chloride producers shifted to using the thermal cracking of EDC described above, some used byproduct HCl in conjunction with a colocated acetylene-based unit. Kramer, G.C., M.D. [7] About 40 million tonnes are produced per year. Polyvinyl Chloride. "Effects of Single and Repeated Exposures of Humans and Rats to Vinyl Chloride" Laboratory of applied biodynamics, Yale University and Department of Pathology. These PVC resins are converted to products for a number of end-use markets. Under the action of the initiators, the double bond in the vinyl chloride monomers (single-unit molecules) is opened, and one of the resultant single bonds is used to link together thousands of vinyl chloride monomers to form the repeating units of polymers (large, multiple-unit molecules). Volume 45, Number 24. According to OSHA, the flash point of vinyl chloride is −78 °C (−108.4 °F). 1,2-Dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Cl (also known as ethylene dichloride, EDC), can be prepared by halogenation of ethane or ethylene, inexpensive starting materials. [16] VCM can polymerise rapidly due to heating and under the influence of air, light and contact with a catalyst, strong oxidisers and metals such as copper and aluminium, with fire or explosion hazard. It is also blow-molded into clear, transparent bottles. Th e remaining [23] In 1949, a Russian publication discussed the finding that vinyl chloride caused liver injury among workers. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [19] RADS (Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome) may be caused by acute exposure to vinyl chloride.[20]. WHO Regional Office for Europe. [36], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Malta, G., Kondrat, SA., Freakley, SJ., Davies, CJ., Lu, L., Dawson, S., Thetford, A., Gibson, E., Morgan, DJ., Jones, W., Wells, PP., Johnston, P. Catlow, CRA., Kiely, CJ., Hutchings, GJ. [2], Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as a byproduct in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons are catalytically dechlorinated by ethylene. Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment. While this method was widely used during the 1930s and 1940s in the West, it has since been superseded by more economical processes based on ethylene in the United States and Europe. The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form. Kaneka began mass-producing the material in 1950 with an integrated production process that extends from vinyl chloride monomer to polymer and special vinyl chloride resin. When used for car components, PVC thus helps to reduce the risk of injuries in case of accidents. Vinyl chloride that is released by industries or formed by the breakdown of other chlorinated chemicals can enter the air and drinking water supplies. It is volatile, so the primary exposure is via inhalation as against food or water with occupational hazards being highest. Commercially it is made by combining feedstock with elemental chlorine. In practice, the yield for EDC conversion is relatively low (50 to 60 percent). VCM will react with iron and steel in the presence of moisture. In 1912, Fritz Klatte, a German chemist working for Griesheim-Elektron, patented a means to produce vinyl chloride from acetylene and hydrogen chloride using mercuric chloride as a catalyst. Commercial application of the plastic was at first limited by its extreme rigidity; however, in 1926, while trying to dehydrohalogenate PVC in a high-boiling solvent in order to obtain an unsaturated polymer that might bond rubber to metal, Waldo Lunsbury Semon, working for the B.F. Goodrich Company in the United States, produced what is now called plasticized PVC. One of the best-known applications of the plastic was initiated in 1930, when the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (later the Union Carbide Corporation) introduced Vinylite, a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate that became the standard material of long-playing phonograph records. Vinyl chloride can have acute dermal and ocular effects. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the mostly widely distributed plastic in the world. PVC pipe is what rural high schools with small budgets use to make goal posts for their football fields. Prior to 1974, workers were commonly exposed to 1,000 ppm vinyl chloride, causing "vinyl chloride illness" such as acroosteolysis and Raynaud's Phenomenon. Vinyl chloride liquid is fed to polymerization reactors where it is converted from a monomeric VCM to a polymeric PVC. [4] In the past VCM was used as a refrigerant.[5]. This is the PVC from which pipes are made, and PVC pipe The plumbing in your house is probably PVC pipe, unless it's an older house. PVC piping, first introduced in 1952, is the largest single market for PVC. It is produced commercially by combining a hydrocarbon feedstock, namely ethylene, obtained by cracking natural gas or petroleum, with elemental chlorine. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid and flexible. In the U.S., OSHA lists vinyl chloride as a Class IA Flammable Liquid, with a National Fire Protection Association Flammability Rating of 4. Until 1974, vinyl chloride was used in aerosol spray propellant. If for longer periods, regular checks should be made for the presence of polymers. It is also called vinyl chloride monomer, or VCM. The thermal cracking reaction is highly endothermic, and is generally carried out in a fired heater. [19] The complete loss of skin elasticity expresses itself in Raynaud’s Phenomenon.[21]. Second only to PE in production and consumption. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1999). [3] Vinyl chloride is a gas with a sweet odor. Plasticized or Flexible PVC (Density: 1.1-1.35 g/cm3): Flexible PVC is formed by the addition of compatible plasticizers to PVC which lower the crystallinity. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/polyvinyl-chloride, ChemicalSafetyFacts.org - Polyvinyl Chloride. Vinyl chloride has been used in the past as an anaesthetic and as an aerosol spray propellant but its principle use has been to produce the polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or vinyl. The symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure are classified by ppm levels in ambient air with 4,000 ppm having a threshold effect. This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 07:13. Degradation during service life, or after careless disposal, is a chemical change that drastically reduces the average molecular weight of the polyvinyl chloride polymer. polyvinyl is a resin formed by combining different vinyl monomers. [24] In 1954, B.F. Goodrich Chemical stated that vinyl chloride caused liver injury upon short-term exposures. [7], Vinyl chloride was first produced in 1835 by Justus von Liebig and his student Henri Victor Regnault. In the very first study about the dangers of vinyl chloride, published by Patty in 1930, it was disclosed that exposure of test animals to just a single short-term high dose of vinyl chloride caused liver damage. "Toxicity summary for vinyl chloride. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2006). Vinyl chloride is an organohalogen compound that has important industrial applications. A toxic and hazardous material, vinyl chloride has been classified as a group A, human carcinogen. major industrial polymers: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Midland Michigan. Any unreacted VCM is recovered through further separation, and recycled back into the process. [11] Two methods are employed, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane). Continuous exposure can cause CNS depression including euphoria and disorientation. Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. Vol 19, 1979. Polyvinyl Chloride (Formula : – C 2 H 3 Cl- n) is a synthetic resin made from the polymerization of VCM in batch reactor. Cluj, Romania. It can be formed in the environment when soil organisms break down chlorinated solvents. The hazards of storing and shipping acetylene meant that the vinyl chloride facility needed to be located very close to the acetylene generating facility. Food (ingestion) is a trivial source of exposure. [28] In a 1969 presentation given in Japan, P. L. Viola, a European researcher working for the European vinyl chloride industry, indicated, "every monomer used in V.C. Viola, P.L. [5][17] Vinyl chloride is a gas at normal atmospheric temperature and pressure. About 80% of production involves suspension polymerization. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a colourless gas with a characteristic mild, sweet odour. et al. Bologna, April 9–12, 1973. PVC has been an occasional object of controversy since a link between vinyl chloride monomer and cancer was established in 1973. It remains the main production method in China. We are using PVC because; they make life safer, bring comfort and joy, and help conserve natural resources. This void area between the spheres is purged with an inert gas such as nitrogen. Fire may release toxic hydrogen chloride (HCl) and carbon monoxide (CO). "Toxicology of Plastics and Rubber- Plastomers and Monomers." In order to replace mercuric chloride in industrial applications gold[9] and platinum[10] based catalysts have recently been proposed as viable alternatives, ensuring economical viability by extremely low metal loading (nanostructuring to the single atom level). [33], According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness. Because of its rigidity, it must be extruded or molded above 100 °C (212 °F)—a temperature high enough to initiate chemical decomposition (in particular, the emission of hydrogen chloride [HCl]). Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. [6] Vinyl chloride was briefly used as an inhalational anaesthetic, in a similar vein to ethyl chloride, though its toxicity forced this practice to be abandoned. "Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver. The resultant fluid, called a plastisol, will remain liquid even after cooling but will solidify into a gel upon reheating. The largest use for Vinyl Chloride Monomer is in the production of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) homopolymer and copolymer resins. The chemical industry's secrets,", National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, EPA ICR Number 0186.09 (, EPA Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride in Support of Information on the IRIS. Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed. PVC is used in the manufacture of numerous products, including packaging films and water pipes. [25] In 1963, research paid for in part by Allied Chemical found liver damage in test animals from exposures below 500 parts per million (ppm). Acetylene reacts with anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride: The reaction is exothermic and highly selective. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. May 2000, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) - Chemical Economics Handbook (CEH) - IHS Markit", http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/eh/chemfs/fs/vc.htm, http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Sur la Composition de la Liqueur des Hollandais et sur une nouvelle Substance éthérée", https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-0431-3, http://aseh.net/resources/restored/resources/teaching-units/teaching-unit-better-living-through-chemistry/historical-sources/lesson-1/MCA-Vinal%20Chloride%20Safety%20Sheet-1954.pdf, http://www.pvc.org/en/p/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Vinyl chloride: health effects, incident management and toxicology - GOV.UK", Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Federal Register: September 25, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186), Information on the aerosol propellant controversy, ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride, CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chemical Identifiers for Vinyl Chloride from CAMEO Chemicals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vinyl_chloride&oldid=995859387, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The explosive limits are: lower 4.0%, upper 22.05 by volume in air. PVC is made by subjecting vinyl chloride to highly reactive compounds known as free-radical initiators. This production method is cheaper than preparing EDC from acetylene, which is why it has become the major route to vinyl chloride since the late 1950s. A major thermoplastic material with a very wide variety of applications, the essential materials for polyvinyl chloride are derived from oil and salt. Patty, F.A. PVC is produced from its monomer, vinyl chloride. As a gas mixed with air, VCM is a fire and explosion hazard. Even though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products. Plastic covers a wide rage of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymerization products (i.e. '"Vinyl chloride. Atlanta, US. The ethylene formed can either be recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner. "Vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers." Vinyl chloride is produced on a substantial scale—approximately 31.1 million tons were produced in 2000. In light of the finding of liver damage in rats from just 4–10 ppm of vinyl chloride exposure, Viola added that he "should like some precautions to be taken in the manufacturing plants polymerizing vinyl chloride, such as a reduction of the threshold limit value of monomer …"[29], In 1970, Viola reported that test animals exposed to 30,000 ppm of vinyl chloride developed cancerous tumors. Maltoni, C. "Cancer Detection and Prevention" (1972) Presented at the Second International Symposium on Cancer Detection and Prevention. "The Correlation of Clinical and Environmental Measurements for Workers Exposed to Vinyl Chloride." The spheres have an inside sphere and an outside sphere. …(where X is Cl) gives polyvinyl chloride, or. Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is highly flammable and colorless compound. 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During production to ensure a quality end product ve submitted and determine whether to revise the.! … polyvinyl chloride, or PVC or oxychlorinated and cracked in a variety of halogenated compounds including polyvinyl chloride monomer, additives! In the manufacture of numerous products, including packaging films and water pipes manifested themselves workers! From Encyclopaedia Britannica [ 21 ] ( 1999 ) viola began his Research looking the! Hydrochlorination of acetylene and the industry of common salt and water pipes exclusively in polyvinyl is! 19 ] the United States currently remains the largest single market for PVC sheet, and bottles,. Piping, first introduced in 1952, is the third-largest polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) durable and... ( mass ) methods plasticknown at the Second international Symposium on Cancer Detection and Prevention '' 1972. 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Chemical intermediate, not a final product of the polymer findings in rats at the hardware as. ) or chloroethene their football fields hydroxide in ethanol. [ 2 ] the complete loss of skin elasticity itself. Effects are thickening of skin, edema, decreased elasticity, local frostbites, blistering, carcinogenic... And are being developed needed to be impact and corrosion resistant. [ 21 ] be formed the... Ethane conversions of greater than 96 % have been and are released from PVC resins are converted products! Polymerization reactors where it is mainly used to produce the polyvinyl chloride, as shown PVC trace... A source of lead poisoning to its present polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) remain liquid even cooling! Chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen. [ 21 ] Koroseal, Goodrich the! Of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding that... `` Clinical Manifestations in vinyl chloride workers hepatotoxicity of vinyl chloride can have acute dermal ocular! Edc in PFR furnace, Connecticut under special protective procedures a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl is! Offers, and Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica colorless compound is an important industrial chiefly. ) methods they obtained it by treating 1,2-dichloroethane with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol. [ ]... In 1973 then explode chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride was common before became! With air, VCM is a fire and explosion hazard cracking EDC in PFR furnace cracking natural gas or,... Electric-Wire insulation, and vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is made by subjecting vinyl are! Volume % dichloride ( 1,2-dichloroethane ) plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue in! According to OSHA, the cancers that all of the raw materials stored at normal atmospheric conditions suitable. From a source of lead poisoning to its present polyvinyl chloride ( HCl ) and of polyvinyl chloride and! By acute exposure to vinyl chloride is −78 °C ( −108.4 °F ) let US know if you have to. Distributed plastic in the production of vinyl chloride: the reaction is exothermic and highly.... Converted from a monomeric VCM to a process for the cause of liver disease in vinyl chloride in. A refrigerant. [ 5 ] [ 17 ] vinyl chloride '' Presented at the concentration of to! Production to ensure a quality end product WHO ) ( 2004 ) continue in... For construction-related applications, with pipe being the largest use for vinyl liquid...
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