poland president plane crash

[98][99], The funeral service for the presidential couple took place in Saint Mary's Basilica in Kraków on 18 April. Disobeying the President and a high-ranking Polish Air Force commander on board, the captain flew on to the originally planned destination. [36] A third flight recorder, a Quick Access Recorder (QAR) designed for maintenance diagnostics, was found on 12 April. [44] However, according to Tomasz Pietrzak, the former commander of the Polish 36th Special Aviation Regiment, the captain of PLF 101 was fluent in Russian and English. [19] Although the shafts are not mechanically connected, the speed of one spool can be calculated based on the speed of the other spool and atmospheric conditions. [citation needed], Another major difference was a conclusion that Russian air traffic control played a part in the accident by passing incorrect information to the crew regarding the plane's position. )[3] In addition, according to some interpretations of the radio exchange between the ground and the aircraft, the crew was instructed by the ground control to descend to 120 metres (390 ft) and either to wait for clearance to land or request one explicitly,[25] or to inform the ground control regarding their decision whether to land or to go around. [56], On 19 May 2010, the preliminary report of the investigation into the crash was published. The Polish report also placed harsh criticism on the organization of Poland's special aviation regiment and its leaders, as well as finding deficiencies in the performance of the Russian air traffic controllers and in the airport's lighting and approach area. [3], At 200 metres (660 ft), the engines were still at idle power. After a summer of protests over the cross, it was transferred to the church on 16 September. [137] The Soviets had long claimed Nazi Germany were the ones responsible. The National Geographic TV series Mayday (also called Air Crash Investigation or Air Emergency) dramatized the accident in a 2013 episode titled Death of the President. He said that there were no doubts about the plane's airworthiness. [71], As part of their investigation, MAK conducted an experiment in a Tu-154M simulator to determine how late the crew could have gone around. Info. [3] Even without the birch tree and subsequent roll, the excessive angle of attack would have led to an aerodynamic stall approximately two seconds after impact with that tree, which would also have led to a fatal accident. The Advisory Committee included 114 academics. All that information is in his testimony. Poland’s government on Friday marked the 10th anniversary of the plane crash that killed President Lech Kaczynski and 95 others by demanding that Russia return the wreckage of the plane. Under Russian law, military flights are under the control of Russian military ATC, and permission or denial for approach and landing must be given by the controller prior to these actions being undertaken by a flight crew. [2] The Polish investigation concluded this caused a delay in executing the go-around which contributed to the crash. [80] New foreign minister Witold Waszczykowski announced that Poland would sue Russia in a human rights court over Moscow's withholding of the wreckage. "I have received with deep regret the news about the Indonesian plane crash… ATC gave distance callouts on average 500 metres (1,600 ft) in advance, and told the aircraft it was on the correct glidepath when it actually was not. Power settings for jet engines are expressed in instrument readings and flight data recorders as percentages labeled as "N1" and "N2". [23] However, the crew continued the descent. [173] Nowaczyk analyzed data from FMS and TAWS system and came to the conclusions that the plane flew over the tree and was torn at a height over 30 m above the ground. 2010 air crash near the city of Smolensk, Russia, Wreckage from the Tu-154 at the crash site, Aviation accidents and incidents in the Soviet Union and Russia, Polish comments on the draft of the final report, Polish parliamentary committee investigation, Smolensk disaster in film, theater, music and literature, Межгосударственный авиационный комитет (MAK), The destruction of the TU-154M wreckage in Smolensk. The commission was to be supervised by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. [167] The paper, however, was self-published and not peer-reviewed. After the accident, trees in this area were cut. The Russian report was published on 12 January 2011, and the Polish report was published on 29 July 2011. [51] A Polish spokesperson said that the first withdrawals using the cards had been made around two hours after the crash. [3] In a typical situation with an airport in the TAWS database, the "PULL UP" warning might not have sounded at this point. A list of documents, evidence, and other information requested by Poland but not received from the Russian side (First table in document "Lista Wystapien Strony Polskiej o Dokumentacje", List of requests from Poland about documentation. Differences in approach card described by Final Report and approach card received by Poland before 10 April 2010 with information that Russia sent documents without information about reference system of coordinates in document. Polish President Lech Kaczynski and his wife died Saturday along with 130 others when their plane crashed while coming in for a landing in western Russia, officials said. The behavior of the controller was later the subject of some criticism by the Polish media. The crash occurred as the Tu-154 air force jet carrying a high-level Polish delegation attempted to land in fog at an airport near Smolensk, Russia. The report from the inspection flight performed on 15 April 2010 stated that the approach lamps, depending on their location and on the altitude of an inbound aircraft, can be shaded by surrounding trees and shrubs when an aircraft is at a distance of 400, 700, and 800 metres from Runway 26. Various conspiracy theories about the crash have since been in circulation, and are promoted by Law and Justice's leaders Jarosław Kaczyński (twin brother to Polish President Lech Kaczyński) and his deputy, Antoni Macierewicz, who claim the crash was a political assassination. [53], An initial report by CIS' Interstate Aviation Committee (Russian: Межгосударственный авиационный комитет (MAK)) revealed that all three engines were operating normally, and that there was no fire or explosion before the aircraft crashed. [3], On the day after the crash, investigators said they had reviewed the flight recorders, and confirmed that there were no technical problems with the Soviet-built aeroplane, ruling out initial theories that the 20-year-old aircraft was at fault. [160][161] The funeral nonetheless went ahead as scheduled. It is unknown whether the crew really understood the ground control instruction (literally, "landing additionally, 120, 3 m"), which was issued in Russian and used a relatively recent expression that was only codified in 2006. [187][209][211], All of the evidence allegedly supporting alternative theories is discussed in the 2013 report of Maciej Lasek commission. MOSCOW — Polish President Lech Kaczynski and some of the country's highest military and civilian leaders died today when the presidential plane crashed … [3], A "systemic cause" of the accident were "significant shortcomings in the organization of flight operations, flight crew preparation and arrangement of the VIP flight in the special air regiment."[3]. The aircraft attempted to pull up after hitting a five-metre-tall (16 ft) birch tree, but part of the left wing had been sheared off in the impact. [3], The Governor of Smolensk Oblast, Sergey Antufyev, confirmed that there were no survivors of the crash. [16][17] According to the Final Report, Russia did offer "Leaderman" services, but Poland refused, stating their crew had satisfactory knowledge of Russian and could conduct the flight without the Leaderman. Flags flew at half staff in Poland. ", "Przełom i szok! The crash devastated the upper echelons of Poland's political and military establishments. [114] The casket remained there throughout the week, until Kaczynski and his wife were laid to rest at the Wawel Cathedral a full week after the crash, on 18 April. [3], According to the Interstate Aviation Committee report from 19 May 2010, the aircraft first hit an 11-metre (36 ft) tree approximately 1,100 metres (3,609 ft) from the runway. The aircraft was also off by 40 metres (130 ft) from the extended middle line of the runway. A thorough analysis of terrain reveals that obstacles were present in the safety area, with many trees exceeding the permitted height limit (mostly about 10–11 metres (33–36 ft)). [2][20], Due to numerous accusations raised by Law and Justice opposition party who rejected the official report's conclusions, a new commission was created in 2013, headed by Maciej Lasek. [202] In April 2018, the commission headed by Antoni Macierewicz published a report which said that the plane was destroyed in the air by an explosion, and that Russian air traffic controllers at the Smolensk air base had misled the pilots about the plane's location during its approach to the runway. [73] The announcement made on MAK website states that the transcripts are based on a copy of recordings identical to the one which was given to the Polish side during the investigation. Many of the Polish government and military officials on the aircraft apparently carried secret NATO communication key codes and devices which were recovered by the Russians after the crash. Poland stated that their comments were not taken into consideration. The aircraft was flying into a valley at this time and actually descended by 60–70 metres (200–230 ft). [210], Opinion polls in 2012 and 2013 found that one-third of Poles think it is possible that the Smolensk crash was an assassination. [46] The final accident report would later conclude that the captain's knowledge of Russian was "satisfactory. [162], NATO was reportedly concerned over the possible compromise of many of its secret codes and communications procedures to the Russian government. Polish president's plane crashes in Russia : worldnews. "[3], The airport, which normally should have been closed due to the severe conditions, was not declared closed as its management feared that this could cause a diplomatic incident. The N1 values were, and at 200 m they indicated 32–33% N1. [137], In an interview with Rzeczpospolita, Andrei Illarionov, Vladimir Putin's former advisor, noted, "... contrary to the promises, the investigation of this crash is neither transparent nor dynamic." "It is with great sadness that I received the news of the Indonesian plane crash, which resulted in the loss of lives of more than 60 people. [54] According to the newspaper Dziennik, Polish flight recorder ATM-QAR registered that precisely at 8:41:02.5 (Polish time) the tail of the aircraft separated. The resulting asymmetrical lift caused an uncommanded roll to the left. [citation needed]. First the flower of the Second Polish Republic is murdered in the forests around Smolensk, now the elite of the Third Polish Republic die in this tragic aircraft crash when approaching Smolensk North Airport. at 10:40:06. In turn Russian investigators received from Poland materials secured after the crash, including those about the technical state of the aircraft and fitness of the pilot. The fact that the delegation killed in the plane crash had been traveling to commemorate a World War II massacre of some 22,000 Polish officers by the Soviet Union deepened the sense of national tragedy. [122] Former Polish Prime Minister Leszek Miller, who had himself suffered injuries in a helicopter crash while in office, said that Poland's aircraft were known to be in need of replacement, despite the lack of evidence that anything was wrong with the particular airplane; "I once said that we will one day meet in a funeral procession, and that is when we will take the decision to replace the aircraft fleet," he said. At the time of the crash, the airport was not equipped with an ICAO-compliant instrument landing system (ILS), the standard system used in most developed countries. Poland's government on Friday marked the 10th anniversary of the plane crash that killed President Lech Kaczynski and 95 others by demanding that Russia return the wreckage of the plane. As a spokesperson for the Air Force Command said: "The Russian side has not confirmed readiness to secure the flight leader". [165] In March 2015 the Polish committee published a report in which it claimed that two separate explosions took place on board the Tupolev in the last few seconds of its flight, bringing the aircraft down; a third explosion allegedly occurred after the impact with the ground. Radios were tuned to the two Non-Directional Beacons (NDBs) present at the field, and the autopilot was set up to use waypoints from the Flight Management System (FMS) units for navigation. Cause of accident according to Polish report: Circumstances contributing to the accident:[2], In addition to Kaczyński and his wife Maria, and Ryszard Kaczorowski, the former last President of Poland in exile, on board were the military chiefs of staff (army, air force, navy), the national bank governor, a deputy foreign minister, head army chaplains of the Catholic and Orthodox churches, head of the National Security Bureau, three deputy parliament speakers, Olympic Committee head, the civil rights commissioner Janusz Kochanowski, trade union activist Anna Walentynowicz, and at least two presidential aides and widely known national lawmakers (including core members of the Law and Justice party). Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki and more than a dozen ruling party politicians also took part despite restrictions imposed because of the coronavirus pandemic that ban gatherings of more than two people. He suggested that the date of the elections should be decided by the parliamentary opposition,[97] with him acting merely to guarantee that the Constitution is respected. [3] At 9:15 Smolensk time, about an hour and a half before the crash, a Yakovlev Yak-40 jet (flight PLF 031)[3] also belonging to the Polish government[10] and carrying Polish journalists from the President's press pool landed at the airbase without incident, though conditions were rapidly worsening at the time. This was not the Luch-2MU system as the Russians stated. Both the Russian and Polish official investigations found no technical faults with the aircraft, and concluded that the crew failed to conduct the approach in a safe manner in the given weather conditions. According to the letter, "rapprochement with the current Russian authorities is more important for the Polish government than determining the truth about the plane crash." This is not standard practice for a non-precision approach, as the radar altimeter does not take into account the contour of the terrain around the airport. Polish explanation that, according to Polish law, Certificate of Airworthiness is required for civilian planes and is not obligatory for military machines — instead of this certificate, Polish military planes have to accomplish conditions regulated by "Instrukcja służby inżynieryjno-lotniczej Lotnictwa Sił Zbrojnych RP" (Instruction for engineering and aviation service of Aviation Forces in Republic of Poland). The commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Katyn massacre was split up because of the political conflict between the liberal-conservative government of Prime Minister Donald Tusk and national-conservative President Kaczyński. The files were declassified in the early 1990s, but before their publication they were only available to specialized researchers. [38], Ewa Kopacz, former Polish Minister of Health, claimed before the Sejm that after the crash, ground was dug to a depth of one metre, and even if a tiny piece of human flesh was found, it was genetically tested. 75% N2 equates to 51–52% N1 for the given conditions. The Polish Armed Forces were dealt a severe blow, however, since all of their senior commanding officers were killed; their duties were automatically taken over by respective deputy commanders, following standard contingency plans for such a situation. [3] The lowest approved visibility conditions to land (approach minimums) were cloud base 100 meters (330 ft) and visibility 1,000 meters (3,300 ft). "Jesteśmy zobowiązani, by zachować pamięć, "NBP i Rada Polityki Pieniężnej kłócą się o rezerwy", "Kurtyka krytykuje nowelizację ustawy o IPN", "Ustawa o IPN zmieniona, teraz kolej na prezydenta", "Szmajdziński kandydatem SLD na prezydenta", "Evidence: Tragic Polish Flight Was No Accident", "Komorowski: Niech opozycja określi termin wyborów", "Lech Kaczyński memorial attended by 100,000 mourners in Warsaw | World news | guardian.co.uk", "Trauerfeier für Absturzopfer in Warschau (International, NZZ Online)", "Europe| Kaczynski burial sparks controversy", "Bronislaw Komorowski declared president of Poland", Late Polish president's twin brother to seek top job, Hot potatoes: A presidential election campaign, in the shadow of a fatal crash, "Across the U.S., Polish-Americans Mourn Crash", Poland mourns as president's body arrives home, "Poland mourns presidential plane crash victims", "Poles honor crash victims: Tens of thousands gather in Warsaw", "Hundreds of thousands in Warsaw for President Lech Kaczyński's memorial service", "Kaczynski to rest among Poland's kings, heroes", "Poland holds state funeral for President Lech Kaczyński", "President of Poland Killed in Plane Crash in Russia", "Nadzwyczajne posiedzenie rządu: – Takiego dramatu świat nie widział", "Polish President Dies in Jet Crash in Russia", Thousands of protesters converge on Russian embassy in Poland, "Russian leaders express condolences over tragic death of Polish president", "Russia to hold day of mourning after Polish president's death", "Poles to pay tribute to lost President Lech Kaczyński", "Tragic plane crash brings 'emotional breakthrough' to Polish-Russian relations haunted by past", "Tragedy in Katyn: Memory without Speculation", "Ъ-Газета–"Катынь" Анджея Вайды в государственном телеэфире", "ANALYSIS: Poland's "second" Katyn tragedy unites, unlike the first", "Russia publishes previously secret files on 1940 Katyn massacre", "Russian parliament admits Stalin ordered Katyn massacre", "Russian Dissidents Say Poland 'Naive' on Plane Crash Investigation", "World leaders to attend late Polish president's funeral ceremony", "National mourning in Bulgaria over the death of Kaczynski", "Página Oficial do Governo de Cabo Verde – Funeral do Presidente da Polónia: Governo decreta Luto Nacional", "Zbog tragične smrti poljskog predsjednika Kaczynskog Hrvati u nedjelju tuguju", "Vláda schválila dny smutku, připadají na 17. a 18. dubna", "Day of Mourning in Georgia over Kaczynski's Death", "Hungary declares national mourning for death of Polish president", "Litwa ubolewa. [185] The claims were denied by Polish prosecutors—who pointed out that a number of common substances could as well have produced the observed readings—and were later withdrawn by the magazine itself. [52] The Polish government admitted that the Russian soldiers involved in the theft were probably conscripts, and that earlier reports blaming members of Russia's OMON forces for the theft had been a mistake. Many passengers were actively opposed to Tusk's policies, including: The President of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers and former CIA analyst, S. Eugene Poteat, has written that political violence should not be ruled out under the circumstances of the aircraft crash.[95]. However, Edmund Klich, the head of the Polish investigative commission, said that "Poland does not have a lot of things that (we) would like to have" and as an example gives lack of documentation of Smolensk airport and regulations about Air Control. Pictures from the scene showed parts of the aircraft charred and strewn through a wooded area. [54], After the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC) report's publication, Poland stated that it was created in violation of Annex 13 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation because some requested documents or evidences were not provided by Russia[41][69] and, according to a Polish lawyer, because Polish comments to the final report were not agreed to nor fully applied. [85] Moreover, in September 2010, one of the Polish pilgrims to Smolensk found a jaw with teeth and two other bones. [citation needed]. [3], On the same day that the final report was published by MAK, Poland published its comments on the draft of the final report[20] sent to MAK before. "The experiment confirmed that during approaches in conditions similar to the flight conditions of the T-154M ... with a similar flight profile with vertical speed of descent of 7–8 m/s ... the aircraft characteristics guaranteed safe go around from the height of 40 m (without taking into consideration the possible obstacles and terrain along the flight path). [citation needed] Edmund Klich, the head of the Polish investigative commission, stated in an interview "Pretty much everything is clear right now and nearly all evidence has been gathered". Tusk knelt and briefly hid his face in his hands, then stood up as Putin patted him on the shoulder. The crash occurred as the Tu-154 air force jet carrying a high-level Polish delegation attempted to land in fog at an airport near Smolensk, Russia. Doubts about proper work of radar display according to protocol from control flight. All other altimeters on board were set correctly. [3] Another immediate cause was the descent below minimums without visual contact with the ground as well as ignoring numerous TAWS warnings. [3] The crew began calling out radar altitude every 10 metres (33 ft). Żałoba narodowa na Oceanie Indyjskim", "Черногория объявила воскресенье днем траура по погибшим под Смоленском | В мире | Лента новостей "РИА Новости, "Briefing de presă susţinut de purtătorul de cuvânt la Guvernului, Ioana Muntean, la finalul şedinţei de Guvern", "Serbia to mourn Polish officials killed in crash", "Slovakia Declares State Mourning on the Day of Lech Kaczyński's Funeral", "Prezydent RP Lech Kaczyński nie żyje — Fakty w INTERIA.PL — 10 kwietnia 2010 r. w wypadku lotniczym w Smoleńsku zginął prezydent Polski Lech Kaczyński", "Kaczynski Family Wants No Delay in Polish Funeral (Update1)", "Iceland's volcanic ash halts flights across Europe", "Volcanic ash spreads more travel misery across Europe", "Kto nie przyjedzie na pogrzeb? (The decision to go around was apparently reached in the cabin of the aircraft within a few seconds of that instruction. [6], The aircraft was a Tupolev Tu-154M of the 36th Special Aviation Regiment of the Polish Air Force (Siły Powietrzne), tail number 101. Later in November, Macierewicz called for the United States to lead an independent international commission on the accident. [18] Six seconds later, someone (most likely the captain or navigator) pressed a button on the captain's FMS panel commanding standard barometric pressure be set on the captain's main electronic altimeter. Therefore, when "PULL UP" sounds, the crew is supposed to begin an immediate, maximum performance emergency climb (full power and angle of attack to the maximum permissible without stalling) and continue climbing until the warning stops. In a normal situation, this would dictate that the first officer be the pilot actually flying the airplane, but as the weather was bad the captain, as the most experienced member of the crew, elected to fly the airplane as well. Polish president dies in plane crash Poland’s President Lech Kaczynski, his wife and several high-ranking officials were killed Saturday when the plane they were traveling on … [207][208][209] Macierewicz repeated these accusations as newly appointed minister of defence in 2016, causing a significant controversy in Polish, Russian and international media. The crash on April 10, 2010, killed president Lech Kaczynski and 95 others, many of them top Polish state and military leaders. The Polish Air Force Tu-154 plane crashed near the Russian city of Smolensk on April 10, 2010, killing all 96 people on board, including President Kaczynski. [24] This point (10:40:40 local time, approximately 20 seconds before the collision with terrain) is also notable because this was the moment when the aircraft had crossed the minimum allowed approach slope for this airport (2°10'). Nie lądować! [67][68] Subsequent Katyn memorials have been joint Russian/Polish affairs attended by the leaders of both countries. [3] On the other hand, he faced strong motivation to land at Smolensk anyway. Naturally it will have a positive impact on the relationship between our countries." The pilots were attempting to land at Smolensk North Airport—a former military airbase—in thick fog, with visibility reduced to about 500 metres (1,600 ft). The control column briefly moved to neutral at this point, then moved full aft and remained there for the duration of the flight. [83] Within two weeks he was obliged to announce the date of the popular presidential election, to be held within a further 60 days on a weekend. All three Soloviev D-30KU-154 engines were within the service limits of 24,000 hours or 11,100 cycles. Doubts about reliability of protocol after control flight which confirmed that light system (LUCZ-2MU) is working properly on Smolensk when MAK Final Report says it did not. [35] That evening, it was reported that the CVR recordings confirmed the crew attempted to land against the advice of air traffic controllers. "[3] The Yak-40 crew estimated visibility was 200 metres (660 ft), but told PLF 101, "you might try...(to make an approach). The Terrain Awareness Warning System (TAWS) fired its first audible warning "terrain ahead!" incorrect coordination of the crew's work, which placed an excessive burden on the aircraft commander in the final phase of the flight; insufficient flight preparation of the crew; the crew's insufficient knowledge of the airplane's systems and their limitations; inadequate cross-monitoring among the crew members and failure to respond to the mistakes committed; crew composition inadequate for the task; ineffective immediate supervision of the 36 Regiment's flight training process by the Air Force Command; failure by the 36 Regiment to develop procedures governing the crew's actions in the event of: failure to meet the established approach criteria; using radio altimeter for establishing alarm altitude values for various types of approach; distribution of duties in a multi-crew flight. On PLF 101, the responsibility for communication usually rests with the navigator. Victims of the airplane crash were also commemorated by minute of silence before several football matches throughout Europe, including El Clásico Real Madrid C.F. The Final Report would later determine that a go-around was technically possible from as low as 40 m, but that 200 m was the first of many times that the crew were required to go around, but did not. ... Hawaii Plane Crash Caught on Tape ... ABC News Recommended for you. [12] There may also have been some friction between the Air Force Commander and the captain, caused by an absence of the latter from condition training. [171] Alleged contradictions, errors and manipulations in the official reports has been pointed out. [3] The Polish report noted that on multiple occasions the radar controller stated the airplane was on the glidepath when it was not. [110] Sports fixtures, including women's U-17 UEFA Championship elite qualifying phase game Poland versus Republic of Ireland in Ukraine, were postponed. WARSAW, Poland – The bodies of former Polish President Lech Kaczynski and his wife are to be removed from their tomb in Krakow after dark … As the airport is not usually open for international flights and is not ICAO certified, the air traffic controllers were not required to be fluent in English, the ICAO standard language for ATC communication. [188] In November 2015, a court in Poland ruled in favour of the sacked journalists, stating that the information published in the article correctly reflected the state of knowledge at the time of publication.[189][190]. [184], On 30 October 2012, Polish magazine Rzeczpospolita reported that traces of explosives had been detected by investigators in the wreckage of the Tupolev, on the wings and in the cabin. On 17 April, one week after the crash, a memorial service, including a two-minute silence, was held to honour the victims of the crash. 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